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Citations & References

More About Chicago Notes

Notes-Bibliography System

In the Chicago's Notes-Bibliography System, the writer provides source information via numbered footnotes or endnotes. The writer may also add comments this way.

Include an endnote or footnote every time you refer to a source, not just in a quote. Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced. Endnotes are listed at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

Either way, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced. In the NB system, the footnote or endnote begins with the number followed by a period and space. In Turabian style, the footnote or endnote begins with a superscript number.

The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title, and page numbers. Check with your professor about using "Ibid." to refer to the same source two or more times in a row.


For books

 1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

For articles

    1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

For online articles

1. Barron YoungSmith, Green Room, Slate, February 4, 2009,

For web pages

1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.