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Citations & References


At the end of your paper, provide a list of all the sources cited in it. Label the page “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).

The bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may, sometimes, include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Entries are in alphabetical order with a hanging indent. If you have no author, then use the title. All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator, etc.), title, and publication information.

Common Formats:

Book with one author

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812. New York: Vintage Books, 1991.

Book by Multiple Authors

Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

Book with Author and Editor

Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Journal article from a print edition
Perttula, Timothy K. “How Texas Historians Write about the Pre-A.D. 1685 Caddo Peoples of Texas.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 115, no. 4 (April 2012): 364-76.
Journal article found online
Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008.
Web page with author and date
Mister Jalopy. “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles.” Dinosaurs and Robots. Last modified January 30, 2009.
Web page without author but with date
"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” Last modified  January 30, 2009.
Web page without author or date
“Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed January 30, 2009.


Corporate Authors

Before you cite a web page with no author, double-check that it wasn't created by by institutesorganizations, or government departments. In these cases, the corporation is the author. Use the full, unabbreviated corporation name for both the in-text citation and on the references page.