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Citations & References


While many think of Chicago style with footnotes, the particular version required here is Author and Date in end notes.

Any fact, figure, or idea that was not part of the writer’s original knowledge should have a citation (Johnson 2014). 

  • The citation includes the author’s name and the year of publication.
  • The citation usually goes inside the ending punctuation. The writer should put the information into the writer’s own words, and information that is paraphrased should be cited (Miller & Greer 2011).
  • If all of the material comes from the same source, then the citation need only appear once in the paragraph at the end of the last bit of outside information.
  • The period goes after the parenthesis: (Johnson, 2014).  

Sources that have an author and a date, whether an individual or an identifiable organization, are more credible than information that cannot be attributed to anyone, even if the information is correct or compelling.

  • If there is no author, then use a shortened title in quotes in the citation.
  • If there is no date of publication, then use: (author, n.d.). 
  • For web sources without a date, use the date you accessed it. Note how the citation now includes a comma so that the abbreviation is not mistaken as part of the author’s name.

If there is a quote, then the citation will be “outside of the quotation marks, inside the ending punctuation, and include a comma and the page number(s)” (Smith 2016, 21-23). 

  • Quotes are used sparingly to show an author’s particular viewpoint.
  • If there are 2-3 authors for the citation, then the citation will include all names (Miller & Greer, 2011).
  • For four or more authors, include the last name of the first author and et al.

All sources that will be cited should be listed in the References section of the paper as well.  All references should be listed in alphabetical order and have hanging indents.