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Citations & References

Chicago Style Explained

The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. It presents citations and references in 2 variations:

the Notes-Bibliography System, used in literature, history, and the arts

the Author-Date System,used in the social/sciences

See the pull-down menu on the Chicago tab above for information on these specific formats.

In 2017, The Chicago Style Guide came out with its 17th edition. Here are just a few changes in the new edition. Check with your professor to see if you should use these.

  • E-mail will become email (no hyphen).
  • Internet will become internet (lowercased).
  • The use of ibid. for repeated citations will no longer be preferred.
  • The use of singular they in place of a generic he or she is not recommended for formal prose; use of the singular they as a preferred personal pronoun (that is, when a specific person asks to be referred to as they) is accepted in formal writing. 


Turabian's Style

In addition, many professors refer to Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations  (8th ed.). It follows the two CMS patterns of documentation with some changes specifically for student papers.

  • Margins should be no less than 1” and no greater than 1.5”
  • Font should be Times New Roman, 12 pt.
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Class papers should include a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page. 
    • Your name and class information should follow several lines later.

Text should be double-spaced, with the following exceptions: 

  • Block quotations, table titles, and figure captions should be single-spaced. 
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be blocked. 
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • An extra line space should immediately precede and follow a blocked quotation. 
    • Blocked quotations should be indented .5” as a whole. 
  • Notes and bibliographies should be singled-spaced with an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries. 

Subheadings should be used for longer papers per the following 5 levels:

  1. Centered, Boldface or Italic with Capitals
  2. Centered, Regular Type with Capitals
  3. Flush left, Boldface or Italic with Capitals
  4. Flush left, sentence-style capitalization 
  5. Beginning of paragraph with no line spacing after, boldface or italic, sentence-style capitalization ending with period