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Citations & References

About References


You should have a reference for every text citation. Sometimes, instructors ask for a bibliography of sources you thought of using while preparing your paper. However, the Reference List at the end of your paper should contain only the sources you actually used in your paper. They should be listed in alphabetical order with hanging indent. Use the following examples below to format your sources by type.

Book: Print Version

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter      also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.


De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo  Indian      tales. Retrieved from

Chapter in a Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of  chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages  of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Journal Article (print)

Author, A. A..  (Year of Publication).  Title of the article. Title of the Journal, Volume(Issue), Page number-Page Number. 

Journal Article (online database)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of  article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. 

Journal Article (no author)

Barcelona to ban burqa in municipal buildings. (2010, June 14).    Retrieved from

Video (movie)

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really  big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures

Video (from website) J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror?    [Web log comment]. Retrieved from

Musical Score

Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by  artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of  recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from  copyright date).

Single TV Episode

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of  publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In P.  Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or  distributor.

Online Posting: General

 AuthorLastname F. Year. Title of post [Description of form]. Available    from


General Online Post No Author

 Title of post. (Year). Title of website. Retrieved from
Online Magazine Article Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of      article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if  available). Retrieved from