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Formatting & References

In-Text Citations


The following sources are listed in order of credibility. An author is more credible than a title, a date is more credible than no date. 

1) After mentioning any fact, figure, or idea from an outside source, add the author's last name and publication date in parenthesis. The period comes after the citation.

Example: Green eggs and ham are not appealing on a boat (Seuss, 1960).

2) After a quote, also add the page or paragraph number.


“I do not like them, Sam-I-am” (Seuss, 1960, 4).

“I do not like them, Sam-I-am” (Seuss, 1960, par. 12).

3) If using the author's name in your sentence, do not include it in the parentheses.

Example: Dr. Suess pointed out green eggs and ham are not appealing on a boat (1960).

4) If you do not have an author, look for a corporate author or use a shortened version of the title in quotes.


The jobless rate declined 38% in 2016 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017).

Trump's first address to Congress mentioned a high number of unemployed ("Fact Check," 2017).

5) If there's no publication date in your source, use 'n.d.'

Example: Robots will soon pick your clothes for you. ("Retail's Tech Revolution," n.d.).

6) If all your information in one paragraph comes from the same source, name the author in an early sentence (with the date) and then you don't have to cite again in that paragraph.

Example: Cook (2010) asserted that a shortcut causing this much trouble may not be a shortcut after all.